Operationally Defining the Cause

Levels of the Cause

H:  Color Causes Emotion

H:  Color Causes Emotion

H:  Color Causes Emotion

Confounding

Confounding- Example 1

PAD Model of Emotion

PAD Model of Emotion

PAD Model of Emotion

PAD Model of Emotion

PAD Model of Emotion +++

PAD Model of Emotion+-+

PAD Model of Emotion-++

PAD Model of Emotion--+

PAD Model of Emotion++-

PAD Model of Emotion+--

PAD Model of Emotion-+-

PAD Model of Emotion---

Confounding- Example 2

Confounding- Example 3

Hue

Brightness

Saturation

The Treatment

The Control Group

Multiple Treatment Conditions

Multiple Independent Variables

Pleasure = .69 Brightness + .22 Saturation

Valdez and Mehrabian (1994)

Measures of Dispersion

Range

Variance

Variance

Variance

Variance

Variance

Variance

Definitional to Calculational

Definitional to Calculational

Calculational Formula

Standard Deviation

Standard Deviation

Standard Error of the Mean

Within Subjects Designs

Between Subjects Designs

Matching

Random Assignment

Random Sample Vs. Random Assignment