**Hypothesis Testing**

**Internal Validity**

**External Validity**

**Confounding**

**Threats to Internal Validity**

**Pre-Test Post-Test Design**

**Pre-Test Post-Test Design**

**Pre-Test Post-Test Design**

**Pre-Test Post-Test Design**

**Benefits**

**Disadvantages**

**History**

**History**

**Maturation**

**Maturation**

**Testing**

**Testing**

**Related Measures t-test:
Assumptions**

**When to use the related
measures t-test**

**Hypothesis**

**Hypothesis**

**First: Calculate the Means**

**First: Calculate the Means**

**Evaluate Hypothesis**

**Evaluate Hypothesis**

**Evaluate Hypothesis**

**Evaluate Hypothesis**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**

**Related Measured t-test**