Research
 
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Research
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Major book
Ecological beliefs and behaviors: Assessment and change.  (1985).  Greenwood Press.  With chapters by Richard Borden (College of the Atlantic ) and Russell Weigel (Amherst).

Most recent publication concentration
Have developed a construct called "the belief in equality" (measured by the BE scale).  It is composed of a set of assumptions that general abilities are widely distributed in the human population rather than being bunched up in small elite minorities.  BE has been validated using organizational scenarios.  High BE persons are more likely to delegate appropriate responsibilities to others, train subordinates more, share information and decision making, and minimize status differences.

These results from the United States have come from cooperative efforts with many of my undergraduate students--Sheila Connors, Amy Dymond, Michael DeCatur, Hileri Gardner, Sue Gardner, Laura Grove, Michael Leornard,  David and JoAnna Mizener, Douglas Osman, John Petrocelli, John Radinsky, Kennon Rice, and Sara Rothenberger.  These studies have been cross-validated with with colleagues in Heidelberg, Warsaw, and Moscow, presented at the last four annual meetings of the Internationa Society of Political Psychology, and published in refereed international journals.

Attitude formation and change
I have conducted and published studies of attitude change in the areas race, religion, beliefs about ecology, and the belief
in equality.  Am currently working with  my students on attitude change experiments about the growing size of the income         gap between top CEOs and average hourly workers using an attitude change paradigm derived from Richard Petty
and John Cacciopo at Ohio State (elaboration likelihood model).

Personality/attitudinal constructs
Have ongoing examinations of simultaneous construct validity for the belief in equality, authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation.  Looking carefully at the major negative correlation between the Belief in Equality (BE) and social dominance orientation (SDO): what do they share, and what is unique to each?    Have a current study under progress with two recent Westminster graduates (John Petrocelli and Sara Rothenberger) examining the factor structure of authoritarianism, the belief in equality, machiavellianism, and social dominance orientation.
 
Avocational personal lifelong learning related to the belief in equality
Via my intense interest and participation in international primitive and traditional archery, a question is constantly begging  for illumination.  How smart were these ancient peoples of one, two, even four and up to eight thousand years ago?  Based on 8,000 year old artifacts of bow and arrow fragments recovered from bogs and burial sites, what do we learn about their abilities and sense of aesthetics?  A rather widespread view is that the ancients, from any part of the world, were categorically prescientific in their cognitive skills, and brutish and dull in their aesthetic awareness.   I expect that both of these stereotypes are in-group biases.

While ancient regions, seasons, and times varied greatly in environmental harshness and scarcity of survival elements and resources (from fairly comfortable to life threatening), and individual differences undoubtedly were great within any one group, I expect general ability and aesthetic awareness was widely distributed in these ancient populations.  I have not yet had expert paleoarcheologists critique these insights, but if they are relatively accurate, two apparently contradictory lessons may be forthcoming.  One, modern humans may be humbled at the realization of the relative high development of these ancient peoples--modern scientifc age humans may not be as categorically advanced as we thought we were.  Two, modern humans may take great pride and confidence that we are part of such a long stream of relatively advanced intelligence and sensitivity.