**Item Analysis and Norms**

**Review Quiz 2b**

**Criterion**

**Criterion Referenced Tests**

**Internal Consistency**

**Preliminary Analysis**

**Item Difficulty (p)**

**Formula for p**

**Item Discrimination (D)**

**Item Discrimination Formula**

**Example 1**

**Determine Frequency of each
response**

**Determine Total Correct
Responses for each Test Taker**

**Find High, Middle, and Low
Scores**

**Use High and Low groups for
p and D calculations.**

**Item 1 Difficulty (p)**

**Formula for p (item 1)**

**Item 1 Discrimination Formula**

**Practice**

**Factors Affecting Items**

**Analysis of Distracters**

**Item Characteristics Curve**

**Plot Total Correct Responses
against Proportion Correct for item**

**Example 2**

**Assignment**

**Standardization**

**Norms**

**Purpose of Norms**

**Norm verses Criterion**

**Sampling for Norms**

**Simple Random Sample**

**Stratified Random Sample**

**Cluster Sampling**

**Item Sampling**

**Evaluating Norms**

**Types of Norm Scores**

**Percentile Norms**

**Steps in Calculating
Percentile Ranks**

**Standard Score z**

**Calculating z scores**

**Z scores**

**Normalized Standard Scores**

**Calculating z**_{n}

**Calculating T**

**Calculating NCE**