SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHER MANAGEMENT STYLES AND CHILD CHARACTERISTICS ON THE LIKELIHOOD OF REFERRAL FOR ADHD
Rebecca L. Vereb & Mark J. Sciutto, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Factors affecting the likelihood of a teacher referring a child to a school psychologist for evaluation for special services were examined. Teachers (N = 118) answered questionnaires regarding their likelihood of referring a hypothetical child for ADHD. A 2x2x2 factorial ANOVA examined the influence of teacher's management style, gender, and primary symptoms on the likelihood of referral of the child in the vignette for evaluation. Teachers believed that hyperactive females would be more manageable than hyperactive males. Also, autonomy oriented teachers felt that the child in the profile required additional assistance beyond the typical classroom more often than control oriented teachers. Finally, hyperactive behaviors were rated as more problematic than inattentive behaviors.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


APPLICATION OF ABRAMSON'S MODEL OF HELPLESS DEPRESSION TO ANGER
Michael R. Lawrence, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The relationship among attributions, negative emotions, and help seeking was examined by using a 2x2 between groups design. Sixty individuals, thirty from a clinical and thirty from a non-clinical population were assigned to one of two different experimental conditions (depression, anger). Participants were asked to recall three situations within the past year in which they were either most angry or most depressed. A questionnaire was then administered to assess their attributions of the recalled emotional experience and the likelihood for seeking help for that particular emotional experience. A statistically significant main effect of condition was found on the dimension of internal/external attributions F(1,33) = 4.76, p= .036. The dimension of internal/external attributions was also positively correlated with seeking help from family r(34)= .470, p= .004 and professionals r(35)= .499, p= .002.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


AIT-082'S EFFECTS UPON A SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED WORKING MEMORY DEFICIT: EIGHT-ARM RADIAL MAZE ASSESSMENT OF RAT BEHAVIOR
Jessica R. Puzausky, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
AIT-082, (4-[[3-(1.6-dihydro-6-oxo-9-purin-9-yl)-l-oxo-propyl] amino] benzoic acid (Neotrofin), a drug that increases production of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite growth from PC12 cells of the hippocampus; and regenerates cholinergic fibers, was tested for its effects upon a working memory deficit induced by scopolamine hydrobromide. AIT-082 and scopolamine were administered separately and in combination to assess the effects of AIT-082 on a memory deficit in male Long-Evans hooded rats (n=12). The number of sample and perseverative errors associated with a working memory task in a radial maze was determined for each treatment condition. Response times were also measured. Scopolamine, (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., administered 30 minutes before testing caused a working memory deficit in comparison to a control condition. AIT-082, (30 mg/kg, i.p.,  administered 60 minutes before testing), caused a reduction of this deficit as measured by sample and perseverative errors. AIT-082 improved the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist. Total time for the completion of five trials was not affected by the administration of AIT-082. AIT-082 caused no improvement upon the rats' physical performances within the maze.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


CHANGING COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS IN RESTRAINED EATERS
Lindsay Russo, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Restrained eaters display levels of body dissatisfaction that fall at an intermediate position on a continuum between that of eating disorder patients and unrestrained eaters.  Cognitive therapy is one of the most frequently used and empirically supported treatments for eating disorder diagnoses.  Cognitive therapy involves encouraging the client to dispute irrational beliefs and distorted thinking.  Past studies have shown cognitive therapy to be effective, but what exactly makes it effective is not clearly understood.  In the psychotherapeutic treatment of negative body image, several studies confirmed the efficacy of disputing in cognitive therapy. The present study tried to show that if female college students can dispute their irrational beliefs, they would show a greater acceptance of their body image.  This study, involving 60 female college students, examined the effect of two types of disputing on body image acceptance.  Results showed that neither the experimental groups nor the control group showed an improvement in acceptability of their body image.  Implications for cognitive treatment of eating disorders is discussed.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


LIFE EXPERIENCES AND AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING STYLE AS PREDICTORS OF SELF-EFFICACY AND NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
Karla J. Evans, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The present study looks at the relationship between life experiences and perceived parenting styles and its effect on self-efficacy and need for achievement. Eighty-seven first year college students completed questionnaires concerning their life broadening experiences, perceptions of their parents' parenting style, general, social, and problem-solving self-efficacy, and their need for achievement. Students also completed the RWA scale, which was used as a mediating variable to measure their level of authoritarianism, which was compared to their perceived parenting style of their parents. It was hypothesized that positive life experiences and perceptions of clearly authoritative parents would predict higher levels of self-efficacy and need for achievement. Results indicated that those with more authoritative perceptions of their parents had greater social self-efficacy, but a low need for achievement. However, those that had many broadening life experiences and authoritative perceptions of their parents had a high social self-efficacy, but also had a high need for achievement.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE EFFECT OF FALSE MEMORIES ON IMPLICIT JUDGEMENTS
Rebecca Drake, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The purpose of the present study was to extend research on the nature of false memories. The hypothesis that implanted false memories will act as natural memories by affecting explicit recall and implicit judgements was tested and confirmed. Twenty-five college students read descriptions of two true events and one false event reported to have occurred around the age of six. Nine subjects recalled the false event. Explicit memory tests indicate that the false memory was rated higher in clarity and confidence in individuals which the memory was recalled. An implicit judgement test was given to all participants. The implanted plausible memory was rated significantly higher after implantation in the group that recalled the false event. Whereas in the group that failed to recall the false event the rating did not change significantly after implantation. The results indicate that explicitly thinking about a false event leads to an alteration of implicit judgements.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS
Tatum L. Rupert & Dr. Sandra K. Webster, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Gender and nonverbal interactions were investigated among 20 male and 20 female college students. These students were videotaped while acting out a conflict scenario. Videotapes were analyzed by coders who recorded specific nonverbal interactions every 20 seconds. Significant main effects for subject gender were found. Men displayed more dominant nonverbal behaviors and total submissive behaviors were higher for women. Future research should consider race of coders of nonverbal interactions.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


GENDER ROLE AND FIELD DEPENDENCY AS PREDICTORS OF PERFORMANCE IN SELECTIVE AUDITORY ATTENTION
Bethany Peters, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The relationship between gender role (measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory) and field dependency (measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test) was investigated in college students to find their predictability of selective auditory attention (measured by 3 dichotic listening tasks). Results show gender role and field dependency were significant predictors of dichotic listening performance to the unattended message. It was also found that individuals displaying similar levels of masculinity and femininity performed much better on these different cognitive tasks, but that individuals displaying high levels of masculinity performed better on the GEFT than individuals scoring low in masculinity.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


EMPATHY, FRIENDSHIP, AND GENDER AS PREDICTORS OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Christy Benko & Dr. Mandy Medvin, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study examined the effects of empathy and friendship on prosocial behaviors of preschool children. Twenty-six participants were asked to identify best friends and rate favorite playmates using both best friend nominations and picture sociometric ratings. Prosocial behavior was measured using situations designed to assess participants' sharing and helping behaviors of friends and/or acquaintances. Empathy was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and teacher ratings. Overall, children with higher levels of empathy were found to be more prosocial. In addition, children were found to be more prosocial toward friends than acquaintances, particularly for sharing. No significant gender differences were found, however.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE EFFECT OF GENDER SCHEMA ON CHILDREN'S TOY CHOICE
Richard E Regelski Jr. & Dr. Mandy Medvin, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study examined children's level of gender schema as well as gender-role knowledge, and its effect on toy choice. Toy choice of 28 preschool children was tested with a measure in which children could base their decisions not only on gender-typing of toy, but also on attractiveness. It was hypothesized low gender schematic children will tend to choose toys based on their level of attractiveness, while high gender schematic children will tend to choose toys based on their gender. Results indicate that there was no significant difference found for the effect of gender schema on toy choice. The scores indicate that children choose toys based on their gender regardless of their level of gender schema.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


COUPLES IN CONFLICT: AN EXAMINATION OF RELATIONSHIP, POWER, AND GENDER
Laura B. Grove & Dr. Sandra K. Webster, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study investigated whether participants with less power use indirect, unilateral strategies, while those with more power use direct bilateral strategies. Each of sixty participants interacted with another woman, another man, or their partner. Level of power was manipulated; more power than the target (expert), less power than the target (novice), or the same amount of power (equal). Participants read a conflict scenario and were asked to report what communication strategies they were likely to use and then role-played the scenario for five minutes. Results indicate that men and women were more likely to use direct, bilateral communication with their partners, but were more likely to unilateral, indirect strategies in the novice conditions with their partners. The self-report results support a power strategies model: whereas, the behavioral results for men support the demand withdrawal model.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


IMPLANTATION OF HUMAN BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS INTO THE BRAINS OF RATS FOR CORRECTION OF PARKINSONISM
Amanda Rosbach, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Rotational behavior is a common assessment for neurodegeneration in rat models of Parkinson's disease. In this study, the rats were lesioned using 6-hydroxydoparnine hydrobromide (6-OHDA) then injected with human marrow stromal cells directly into the corpus striatum of the brain. Rotational behavior assessment 5 to 30 days later showed no significant behavioral improvement. The viability of the cells was questionable and a probable cause for lack significant results. Further investigation of marrow stromal cells should be greatly considered.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE EFFECT OF SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPES ON MEN'S AND WOMEN'S  SELF-DESCRIPTIONS
Julie M. Bach & Dr. Sandra K. Webster, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Previous studies have indicated that both men and women describe themselves stereotypically and hold stereotypes about the opposite sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if men and women describe themselves stereotypically to member of their same sex and the other sex and to see if gender role affects the self-descriptions. The participants gave one three-minute self--description on an audio tape. The participants rated the audio tapes for their partner, and they completed the Bem sex-role inventory. The results showed that the more masculine a man was when he was talking to woman the more personal information he was likely to mention. The results also found that the listeners rated the speakers as more neutral rather than masculine or feminine. The conclusion showed that men and women described themselves stereotypically.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


RESEARCHING CHILDREN'S RACIAL PREJUDICE, SELF-IDENTIFICATION, AND RESULTING PLAYMATE PREFERENCE: AN ETHICAL MODEL OF PROCEDURES
Michelle Stewart, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
An ethical model of procedures was developed to improve the methodology of testing children's racial prejudice, self-identification, and their influence on playmate preference. Twenty-one publications of studies pertaining to this area of research were surveyed for their ethical procedures of parental consent child assent, confidentiality, measurement used, and debriefing. A number of these ethical procedures are not described in the majority of studies surveyed. In order to prevent any adverse effects of testing on the child participant as well as convince parents, teachers, and schools to accept this sensitive area o research, ethical procedures must be accurately described in the methods section for heightened awareness among researchers.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BROADENING LIFE EXPERIENCES, PERCEIVED PARENTING STYLES AND AUTHORITARIANISM PREDICTING CONFLICT RESOLUTION
Emily Boyle, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The following study examined the relationship between broadening life experiences, parent's Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and perceived parenting styles predicting conflict resolution with peers and parents, as mediated by the student's RWA. The participants were sixty-two, first year college students and forty-four of their parents. The students were asked to complete Altemeyer's Experience Scale (1988), two Peer Conflict Scenarios, two Parent Conflict Scenarios, the “My Parent/My Free Time” questionnaire, and Altemeyer's RWA Scale (1996). The parents completed the Altemeyer's RWA Scale. The results indicated that broadening life experiences were not the strongest predictors of how the students resolve their peer and parent conflicts as had been predicted. Broadening life experiences were among the most significant predictors in some of the Parents Conflict Scenarios and in one of the Peer Conflict Scenarios.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


BODY IMAGE PERCEPTIONS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Angela A Falcocchio, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study examined body image perceptions and preferences of preschool children, 3-5 years, using pictorial figures, ranging in adiposity. Using factorial ANOVAs, the impact of gender, age, and picture type on children's body size perceptions was examined. In general, it was found that older children tend to be more accurate in determining their body sizes. In addition, girls tend to choose thinner pictures than boys choose to represent themselves. Furthermore, when indicating how they would like to look in adulthood, younger children usually preferred heavier figures than older children preferred. Also, females were more likely than males to prefer thinner figures for adulthood and for peers. A Chi-Square analysis indicated that children often avoided choosing the heaviest figures to describe their self--perceptions and preferences of body size. Two types of visual stimuli were presented to the children, photographs and drawings. Consequently, it was found that using the drawings, developed by Collins (1991), led to more obvious avoidance of obese people, while the presenting the photographs resulted in more varied responses. Further research is necessary to develop sensitive measurements of body image perceptions in children.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE EFFECTS OF OPTIMISM AND FEEDBACK ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
Tiffany Busato, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study focuses on the ways optimism affects interpretations of feedback, which in time influences a person's behavior. The Westminster College Varsity Women's Cross Country Team members, which included 13 females, were used as participants. Participants of this study completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire to measure levels of optimism. The participants were divided into two groups, high and low, based on their Attributional Style Questionnaire scores. Then, the participants ran three trials of a specified distance and were told slower running times after running the last two trials. Results of this study support previous findings and suggest that levels of optimism have a significant effect on running times after participants are given negative feedback.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE EFFECTS OF GENDER ROLE KNOWLEDGE AND DYADIC TYPE ON PRESCHOOLER'S TOY-SELECTIONS
Emily Klein, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
A gender-role discrimination task which measured the child's awareness of gender-role knowledge and his or her conceptions about what is considered gender appropriate, was administered to 12 boys and 12 girls age 3-5 years old. The children were separated into dyads of boy/boy, girl/girl, and boy/girl combinations. They were observed playing with gender-specific and gender-neutral toys. Gender effected the amount of time each child spent with gender specific toys. Both boys and girls made more gender specific toy choices. However, girls spent more time overall playing with gender specific toys. Girls who displayed low gender role made more gender specific toy selections. Boys with a high gender role knowledge made more gender specific toy-selections. Dyad had no significant influence on toy selection.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROACTIVE COPING AND PERCEIVED STRESS
Jennie Willison, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Proactive coping, a model of stress management focused on temporal and environmental cues, was measured in relation to the perceived stress levels of senior year college students. It was hypothesized that a negative relationship would exist between the coping and stress frameworks in the sample population, due to the pressures of post graduation planning. The Perceived Stress Scale and proposed Graduate Transition Scale (developed from proactive coping research) were administered to 187 (m=58, f=129) students during senior testing, sessions, two weeks before graduation. Data was analyzed using correlational measurements and revealed a significant relationship between the initial appraisal of perceived stress. Future research should test a broader population and more valid measurements of both concepts.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


YOUNG ADULT CHILDREN'S PERCEPTION OF PARENT CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES AND PARENT-CHILD INTERACTION STYLES
Marcella N. Carney  & Dr. Sandra K. Webster, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Perceptions of their parents' conflict resolution styles and psychological well being were assessed for 41 undergraduate men and 39 undergraduate women. Perceived parent conflict resolution strategies were measured using six scenarios and eight response types. Women's psychological well being was significantly predicted by perceptions of their mothers' inaction, verbal aggression, withdrawal and physical aggression and of fathers' physical aggression and inaction. Men's well being was significantly related to mothers' negotiation and physical aggression for both parents. Perceived involvement of the adult child in parent conflict (triangulation) also related to psychological well being. These results suggest that parent conflict continues to be an important determinant of adult psychological well being.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


COLLABORATIVE LEARNING AND PROBLEM SOLVING IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN VIA COMPUTER
Sarah Pavlik, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Solitary and collaborative performances on a computer task were compared to examine contributions to problem solving in preschool children. Sixteen 4-5 year old children (8 boys, 8 girls) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: alone or same-gender dyad. The preschoolers participated in an individual pretest, two interactive or solitary sessions, and an individual posttest. Time on task, percentage of correct answers, number of attempts, enjoyment, and spatial skills were compared. Both the alone and same-gender dyad had more correct answers and more time on task on the computer task from the pretest to the posttest. Furthermore, dyadic communication was also observed. More demonstrations and explanations were given in the first interactive session than in the second interactive session. Results suggest that cognitive gains can be achieved when preschool children engage in cooperative social interaction and instruction, and it may aid in problem solving.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


CHANGING ATTITUDES REGARDING INCOME DISPARITIES
David Hamilton & Dr. David Gray, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of individuals toward income disparities then change those attitudes. 115 participants were randomly assigned into 4 categories (no information, background information, 3 or 6 arguments). The results from this study show that the participants realize that the income gap is widening and is large. Although, the participants realize there is a problem they feel comfortable with how they are now and don't think major changes should occur immediately to help the widening gap. The need for cognition, argument structure and number of arguments had no effects.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


THE EFFECTS OF UNCONSCIOUS TRANSFERENCE ON THE ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION
Autumn C. Pontius, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study tested whether unconscious transference (UT) takes place during a lineup and compared three theoretical approaches to UT: Automatic processing, source monitoring, or memory blending. Sequential vs. simultaneous lineups were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of identification. UT is when a witness mistakenly identifies a bystander instead of the assailant in a lineup. 105 college freshmen were asked to view a videotape in which a crime was presented. They had to subsequently identify the assailant and answer questions pertaining to the incident. Independent factors were lineup condition, lineup style, and film condition. The results showed that in the simultaneous lineup condition with both the assailant and the bystander present witnesses were more likely to report that the assailant as "not present". Future research on UT should address the question, "Why does the presence of a bystander lead to a response of "not present" in the lineup when the assailant is actually there?"
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


ATTRIBUTION DIFFERENCES AMONG MEN AND WOMEN COLLEGE SOCCER TEAMS OF DIFFERENT SKILL LEVEL
Caleb Kyper & Dr. David Gray, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The effect of skill level (high and low) on the sports competitor's attribution (internal and external) was investigated. As skill level rises, so to do the number of internal attributions. In comparison, external attributions were hypothesized to rise as skill level decreases. A total of 108 participants were split into one of four groups (high skill male, high skill female, low skill male, and low skill female) and asked to answer a series of attribution questions. The results showed that skill level relates to the type of attribution given. However, it was found that women prefer external attribution for winning rather than internal attributions, which is contradictory to the hypotheses. Further study is recommended in the area of sports attribution style.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


ATTRIBUTION OF INTENT: GENDER TYPICAL AND GENDER A-TYPICAL CRIMES
Dan Jones, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
Attribution of intent is an important aspect of understanding social interactions in the world around us. Using 17 women and 13 men, this study analyzed the female or male observer's attribution of intent towards perpetrators of a crime. Manipulated was the extent to which the crime appeared to be motivated by external or internal factors and whether the crime was gender-typical. It was predicted that if a crime were typical the perpetrator would receive external attributions and if a crime were a-typical the perpetrator would receive internal attributions. It was also predicted that if a crime were intentional the perpetrator would receive internal attributions and if a crime were unintentional the perpetrator would receive external attributions. The first hypothesis was not supported but the second hypothesis was and other significant aspects were found. It was found that there was a significant difference in responses between men and women observers.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


EFFECTIVENESS OF MODERN AND OVERT RACISM SCORES ON PREDICTING RESPONSES TO DELIBERATE AND SPONTANEOUS TASKS
Gregory McAtee, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The present research examines the accuracy in explicit and implicit measures of racial response in determining outcomes under different social conditions. Twenty-eight undergraduate students completed a survey that contained the McConahay's Modern and Overt Racism Scales (1986). It was predicted that high scores on the Modern Racism Scale would best predict racism on a spontaneous task. The spontaneous task used was a word association task in which participants were primed with subliminal white or black images. It was also predicted that high scores on the Overt Racism Scale would best predict results on a deliberate task. The deliberate task used mock jury trials in which participants had to decide the amount of guilt of the black defendants based on the evidence present. The results showed no significance findings for prediction of the Modern Racism Scale on the spontaneous task and the Overt Racism Scale on the deliberate task. Results for these findings could be attributed to strength of the scale and influence of the racial primes.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


ANTECEDENTS THAT RELATE TO SELF REPORTED GANG INVOLVEMENT
Kellon Ratliff & Dr. Sandra K. Webster, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
This study focuses on the strength of predicting factors on Gang Involvement. Familiarity, Family factors, Environmental factors, and Personal factors were studied. It is hypothesized that familiarity, family factors, personal factors, and environmental factors are important predictors of gang involvement. It is also hypothesized that delinquent youths will show a greater knowledge and degree of gang involvement than will non-delinquent youths. A total of 151 male youths, which were enrolled in a juvenile rehabilitation facility (80) and Westminster College (71), were used for the study. Each respondent was administered two surveys to complete. The Rosenberg Self-esteem survey and the Ratliff survey of gang perception (1998) was used. Significant results were found in both facilities on familiarity as well as association (family). Delinquent youths showed a greater knowledge and degree of involvement with gangs when compared to the students at Westminster College.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


SIGNIFICANCE OF THOUGHTS AS A PREDICTOR OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE AVOIDANCE
Scott Alan Stinson, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The study investigated the significance of thoughts as a predictor of avoidance behavior. Based on Rachman's (1997) cognitive theory of obsession, it was predicted that significance of intrusive thoughts will positively relate to self-report and behavior measures of avoidance. Significance of intrusive thoughts will be a greater predictor than a measure of the frequency of those thoughts. The design was correlational. Predictors were the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Significance of Thoughts Questions (STQ). The criterions were the Behavior Avoidance Scale and the Behavioral Measure of Avoidance. Forty-one college participants were used from Westminster College (PA). Participants were tested via a computer for the MOCI and the STQ. The remaining tests were given on paper. There was no significance in either direction of the correlation between significance of intrusive thoughts on avoidance behavior or the measure of behavioral actions. There was no significance in either direction of the correlation between the MOCI on avoidance behavior or the measure of behavioral actions. Since neither of these analysis were significance, it can not be assume that any one predictor is more positively related than the other. Based on these results this study did not support Rachman's (1997) theory.
 

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


CORE IRRATIONAL BELIEFS AND AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS AS PREDICTORS FOR ANGER AND DEPRESSION
Heather L. Meinke, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of automatic thoughts and core beliefs in differentially predicting emotions of depression and anger. Seventy-two participants completed measures of state and trait anger, state and trait depression, core irrational beliefs, and automatic thoughts in order to determine the significant predictors for depression and anger. In accordance with the cognitive theory, it was predicted that core irrational beliefs would be stronger predictors for both emotions. It was also predicted that the core irrational belief of global rating would be the strongest predictor of depression, as would demandingness be the strongest predictor for anger. The results did not support the hypotheses stated, but some correlations were statistically significant for other cognitive predictors.

SENIOR STUDY ABSTRACTS - SPRING 99
Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA


FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE WILLINGNESS TO PURSUE ACCEPTANCE OF PRESENT WEIGHT AS A TREATMENT GOAL IN EATING DISORDERS
Kristen Ogle, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA
The study's purpose was to examine the effect of an educational intervention on individuals’ willingness to pursue acceptance of present weight as a goal for therapy. 40 participants, including both restrained and unrestrained eaters were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The educational intervention on the limitations and hazardous effects of weight reduction was presented to test the participants’ willingness to pursue acceptance as a form of treatment for individuals with eating disorders. The results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences in the pre and post scores between the control and experimental group for the treatment acceptability. In conclusion, implications from this study show that different types of material, included in the interventions, should be explored in order for this form of treatment to be effective.